Protective Relaying of Power Systems Using Mathematical Morphology

The basic operating principles of the most common types of protection relays have not changed for more than half a century. The relays measure the major attributes of power system fault signals, such as fundamental frequency component, harmonics, magnitude and phase angle of voltages and currents. The Fourier transform is commonly applied for measuring these attributes in a long and fixed sampling window of the fault signals. And at the same time, complex calculations of the Fourier transform have to be undertaken during each sampling interval. These calculations cause many 

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